Samotokin Boris Aleksandrovich
(0.6.08.1915-02.11.1994)

 

Samotokin Boris Aleksandrovich - headed the Chair of Neurosurgery since 1957 up to 1982, being at the same time a Chief Neurosurgeon of the USSR Ministry of Defense. He was born in Saint Petersburg. His instructors were professors A.L. Polenov and I.S. Babchin, academician V.N. Shamov, who were founders of home neurosurgery. Samotokin B.A. was at the Leningrad front from the very first and up to the last day of the Great Patriotic war. There he rendered neurosurgical care to the wounded.

During 900 days of the Leningrad siege he performed the most difficult operations for gunshot wounds of the skull, brain, spine, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Samotokin was greatly interested in field neurosurgery. In particular, it concerned treatment of gunshot craniocerebral injuries. He collected and summarized unique scientific information, which served the basis for writing some chapters, included into the 4th and 5th volumes of "Experience of Soviet Medicine Gained During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945". Samotokin B.A. devoted his thesis for a Candidate's degree to treatment of subarachnoid fistulas in gunshot craniocerebral wounds.

Under his guidance the Chair of Neurosurgery became one of the main clinical and scientific neurosurgical establishments of the country and the leading center of specialized care, as well as of education and research in neurosurgery, in the Armed Forces.


B.A. Samotokin during WW II

The main trends in neurosurgery development were studying pathogenesis, a clinical picture and treatment of severe craniocerebral trauma, problems of surgical treatment of deeply localized cerebral tumors, angioneurosurgery, anesthesiologic support of neurosurgical patients, organization of specialized care in peace and war time.

B.A. Samotokin was one of the authors of classification of closed craniocerebral trauma, which has not lost its importance up to now. Great attention was paid to peculiarities of gunshot wounds, inflicted by modern weapons. Besides, he was a pioneer in the field of surgery of cerebrovascular diseases. Cerebral angiography was introduced and improved under his leadership in 1959. Samotokin was the first in Leningrad (1959) to clip ICA aneurysm. He made radical removal of arteriovenous malformation in 1960.

Samotokin B.A. and his coworkers KhilkoV.A. and Yankin V.F. developed a method of embolization of arteriovenous malformations by polystyrolene emboli and modified an operation for exclusion of carotid-cavernous anastomosis by a detachable balloon-catheter.

Results of surgical treatment of cerebrovascular pathology were summarized in the monograph by B.A. Samotokin and V.A. Khilko, entitled "Aneurysms and Arteriovenous Anastomoses of the Brain" (1973), and the monograph "Intravascular Neurosurgery", written by V.A. Khilko and Yu.N. Zubkov (1982) and edited by Samotokin. He was awarded the State Prize and Burdenko Prize of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Medical Science for his contribution to this field.

His fine surgical skills allowed him to operate on all segments of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Samotokin performed more than 3000 difficult neurosurgical interventions. He contributed much to development of military neurosurgery and created a system of specialized care in the Armed Forces. Specialists of the Chair and Clinic of Neurosurgery of the Medicomilitary Academy, guided by Samotokin B.A., developed methods of surgical treatment of lumbar osteochondrosis, chronic dislocations of cervical spine, cranioplasty of fronto-orbital defects, neuroplasty of the facial nerve, stereotactic operations in parkinsonism and treatment of infectious complications by local antibiotics, applied to a cerebral wound. His disciples headed neurosurgical departments both of the Chief Clinical Military Hospital named after N.N. Burdenko and district military hospitals. Besides, they worked at the Chair and other neurosurgical establishments of the country. Among them one can mention:


B.A. Samotokin (in the center), V.I. Grebenyuk (on his right) and their students during practical studies

Samotokin was elected a chairman of the Board of the Leningrad Scientific Society of Neurosurgeons several times. Besides, he was an Honorary Member of Scientific Neurosurgical Societies of Leningrad, Moscow and Moscow region, Byelorussia, Baltic republics, Novosibirsk region, Bulgaria, Mongolia; a member of the Board of the All-Union Society of Neurosurgeons; a member of the editorial board of "Voprosy Neirokhirurgii", "Voienno-Meditsinsky Zhurnal" and Greater Medical Encyclopedia. B.A. Samotokin is an author of 230 scientific works, including two monographs and three manuals; 14 theses for doctor's and 30 theses for candidate's degree were written under his guidance. He was decorated with the golden Hammer and Sickle Medal, the Order of Lenin, the Order of the Red Star (2), the Badge of Honor, the Order of the Patriotic War and 16 medals.